> d 7.04.99

> By Johan Galtung, dr hc mult, Professor of Peace Studies

> Director, TRANSCEND: A Peace and Development Network

> > Arguments in favor of conflict intervention: the conflict

> parties are unable to transform the conflict so as to avoid

> violence; unable to keep violence under control; unable to

> handle post-violence resolution/reconstruction/reconciliation.

> > Arguments against conflict intervention: the conflict and

> any solution is the joint property of the conflict parties;

> outside parties will never understand the uniqueness of the

> conflict; outside parties also enter with their own agendas.

> > As there is truth to all these arguments, the general

> principle would be to proceed with care, which might be

> interpreted, as a minimum, to mean:

> > [1] Reversibility: you have a right to propose and act, but only

> that which can be undone: you may be wrong. Hence, no or minimal

> violence; UN Chapter 6 (Sun Tsu), not Chapter 7 (Clausewitz).

> > [2] Reciprocity: only engage in conflict intervention, peace-

> making, peace-keeping, peace-building if you are sure that you

> yourself are willing to be intervened, peace-made, peace-kept,

> peace-built by others, letting that question inform your action.

> > [3] Universality, but with care: do not always do unto others

> what you would like them to do unto you, their tastes may be

> different. Even if electoral democracy and individualist human

> rights are good for you, they may not be to others.

> > [4] Empathy with the Others, obtained through deep dialogues. Be

> sure you are able to identify what drives the Other parties the

> way they agree with, not necessarily the way you agree with.

> > [5] Empathy with the Self, obtained through inner dialogues

> (meditation). Be sure you are able to identify the driving

> forces in yourself, beyond helping the parties to transform the

> conflict and to undo damage, in a creative and nonviolent way.

> [6] DPT Consistency: be sure that you know what the problem is

> before you suggest a solution, in order not always to suggest

> your panacea solution out of old habit. Be willing to have

> dialogues with all parties about diagnosis-prognosis-therapy.

> > [7] Encourage intervention by the Other: organize dialogues

> about their situation by the conflict parties themselves.

> > [8] Seek participation: do not fall for the temptation to seek

> solutions as seen by leaders only, search for a broader basis.

> > [9] Seek acceptability: meaning an outcome not agreed to for

> fear of punishment or desire of reward (stick and carrot

> incentives), but because the outcome comes through as right.

> > [10] Seek sustainability, meaning an outcome that does not have

> to be propped up artificially from the outside but generates its

> own support by speaking to the conditions of all parties.